Galaxy Field Guide For Kids Credits

All images in ‘Galaxy Field Guide For Kids’ came from NASA/ESA and the Hubble Space Telescope. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is the government space agency of the United States. The (ESA) is the organization in Europe that conducts space exploration.

NASA and the ESA cooperated to design, launch and maintain the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). The telescope was launched by the space shuttle Discovery (STS-31) on 24 April 1990 at 12:33:51 UTC. Hubble was released by the Shuttle’s robotic arm on 26 April at 19:38 UTC.

The acronym UTC is from a French phrase that means Coordinated Universal Time. Years ago, most people used the phrase Greenwich Mean Time. When the English navy ruled the world most ships set their clocks to the time in Greenwich, England. Greenwich Mean Time and UTC are the same. This time became a standard that is now used all over the world and even in outer space.

Many people are needed to create such a complex and wonderful tool as the HST. Many more people are needed to create each of the images contained in this field guide. Every image was a team effort by many people. Their names and the names of the organizations appear in the credits list below. The name of the galaxy appears first, followed by the credit.

You can learn more about the Hubble Space Telescope and its continuing mission in the article ‘Hubble Space Telescope Keeps On Truckin’ on the Helioza web site.

Spiral Galaxies

  • NGC 4921 – NASA, ESA and K. Cook (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, USA)
  • M 104 Sombrero – NASA/ESA and The Hubble Heritage Team STScI/AURA)
  • M 106 – NASA, ESA, the Hubble Heritage Team (STScI/AURA), and R. Gendler (for the Hubble Heritage Team). Acknowledgment: J. GaBany
  • NGC 7049 – NASA, ESA and W. Harris (McMaster University, Ontario, Canada)
  • M 101 Pinwheel – Image: European Space Agency & NASA. Acknowledgements: Project Investigators for the original Hubble data: K.D. Kuntz (GSFC), F. Bresolin (University of Hawaii), J. Trauger (JPL), J. Mould (NOAO), and Y.-H. Chu (University of Illinois, Urbana). Image processing: Davide De Martin (ESA/Hubble). CFHT image: Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope/J.-C. Cuillandre/Coelum. NOAO image: George Jacoby, Bruce Bohannan, Mark Hanna/NOAO/AURA/NSF
  • NGC 2841 – NASA, ESA and the Hubble Heritage (STScI/AURA)-ESA/Hubble Collaboration Acknowledgment: M. Crockett and S. Kaviraj (Oxford University, UK), R. O’Connell (University of Virginia), B. Whitmore (STScI) and the WFC3 Scientific Oversight Committee.
  • M 31 Andromeda – 2002 R. Gendler, Photo by R. Gendler
  • NGC 1300 – NASA, ESA, and The Hubble Heritage Team STScI/AURA)
  • NGC 5584 – NASA, ESA, A. Riess (STScI/JHU), L. Macri (Texas A & M University), and the Hubble Heritage Team (STScI/AURA)
  • NGC 1672 – NASA, ESA
  • M 51 Whirlpool – NASA, ESA, S. Beckwith (STScI), and The Hubble Heritage Team STScI/AURA)
  • NGC 6217 – NASA, ESA and the Hubble SM4 ERO Team
  • IC 2163, NGC 2207 – NASA/ESA and The Hubble Heritage Team (STScI)
  • NGC 1073 – NASA & ESA
  • M 77 – NASA, ESA & A. van der Hoeven
  • NGC 4414 – Hubble Heritage Team (AURA/STScI/NASA/ESA)

Elliptical Galaxies

  • NGC 1316 – NASA, ESA, and The Hubble Heritage Team STScI/AURA)
  • Abell 1703 – NASA, ESA, and Johan Richard (Caltech, USA), Acknowledgement: Davide de Martin & James Long (ESA/Hubble)
  • NGC 1132 – NASA, ESA and the Hubble Heritage (STScI/AURA)-ESA/Hubble Collaboration. Acknowledgment: M. West (ESO, Chile)
  • 4C 73.08 – ESA/Hubble & NASA
  • Abell 383 – NASA, ESA, J. Richard (CRAL) and J.-P. Kneib (LAM). Acknowledgement: Marc Postman (STScI)
  • M 32 – NASA/ESA and Thomas M. Brown, Charles W. Bowers, Randy A. Kimble, AllenV. Sweigart (NASA/ESA Goddard Space Flight Center) and Henry C. Ferguson ( Space Telescope Science Institute)
  • NGC 5253 – ESA/Hubble & NASA, Acknowledgement: N. Sulzenauer
  • SDSS J162702.56+432833.9 – ESA/Hubble & NASA
  • NGC 4696 – ESA/Hubble and NASA

Disk Galaxies

  • NGC 5866 – NASA, ESA, and The Hubble Heritage Team STScI/AURA)
  • NGC 4452 – ESA/Hubble & NASA

Lenticular Galaxies

  • NGC 4866 – ESA/Hubble & NASA, Acknowledgement: Gilles Chapdelaine
  • NGC 5010 – ESA/Hubble & NASA

Ring Galaxies

  • Cartwheel Galaxy – ESA/Hubble & NASA
  • AM 0644-741 – NASA, ESA, and The Hubble Heritage Team (AURA/STScI)
  • Zw II 28 – ESA/Hubble & NASA, Acknowledgement: Judy Schmidt
  • Hoag’s Object – NASA/ESA and The Hubble Heritage Team STScI/AURA)
  • NGC 922 – NASA, ESA, CXC

Seyfert Galaxies

  • NGC 7742 – Hubble Heritage Team (AURA/STScI/NASA/ESA)
  • NGC 7674 – NASA, ESA, the Hubble Heritage Team (STScI/AURA)-ESA/Hubble Collaboration and A. Evans (University of Virginia, Charlottesville/NRAO/Stony Brook University)
  • IRAS 14092-6506 Circinus – Andrew S. Wilson (University of Maryland); Patrick L. Shopbell (Caltech); Chris Simpson (Subaru Telescope); Thaisa Storchi-Bergmann and F. K. B. Barbosa (UFRGS, Brazil); and Martin J. Ward (University of Leicester, U.K.) and NASA/ESA
  • NGC 1097 – ESA/Hubble & NASA, Acknowledgement: E. Sturdivant
  • NGC 1275 – NASA, ESA and Andy Fabian (University of Cambridge, UK)

Interacting Galaxies

  • NGC 7469 – NASA, ESA, the Hubble Heritage Team (STScI/AURA)-ESA/Hubble Collaboration and A. Evans (University of Virginia, Charlottesville/NRAO/Stony Brook University)
  • Hickson Compact Group 90 – NASA, ESA and R. Sharples (University of Durham, U.K.)
  • Arp 142 Penguin – NASA, ESA and the Hubble Heritage Team (STScI/AURA)
  • NGC 1409, NGC 1410 Pipeline – William C. Keel (University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa) and NASA/ESA
  • Seyfert’s Sextet – NASA/ESA, J. English (U. Manitoba), S. Hunsberger, S. Zonak, J. Charlton, S. Gallagher (PSU), and L. Frattare (STScI)
  • Hickson Compact Group 31 – NASA, ESA, S. Gallagher (The University of Western Ontario) and J. English (University of Manitoba)
  • IC 2184 Flying V – ESA/Hubble & NASA
  • NGC 4676 Mice – NASA, Holland Ford (JHU), the ACS Science Team and ESA
  • NGC 4038, NGC 4039 – NASA, ESA, and the Hubble Heritage Team STScI/AURA)-ESA/Hubble Collaboration. Acknowledgement: B. Whitmore ( Space Telescope Science Institute) and James Long (ESA/Hubble).
  • Arp 148, Mayall’s object – NASA, ESA, the Hubble Heritage Team (STScI/AURA)-ESA/Hubble Collaboration and A. Evans (University of Virginia, Charlottesville/NRAO/Stony Brook University), K. Noll (STScI), and J. Westphal (Caltech)
  • Stephan’s Quintet – NASA, ESA and the Hubble SM4 ERO Team
  • ESO 510-G13 – NASA/ESA and The Hubble Heritage Team STScI/AURA)

Dear Reader

I hope you enjoyed looking at these amazing photos of real galaxies as much as I did. While I was putting this book together I was constantly surprised by each new image. I thought each galaxy was more beautiful and mysterious than the next. The variety is simply breathtaking.

Before the Hubble Space Telescope we knew that there were other galaxies, but they were mostly just fuzzy smears on old photographic plates. When Hubble focused on galaxies, the results surprised even the most experienced astronomers.

Our universe is filled with wonders. It seems there are too many to grasp. To me, that means the wonder and excitement will continue for many years to come. If you are interested in astronomy, you will have the chance to make many discoveries because there is so much to find.

As much as I like the stars, I also like to hear from my readers. I want to know what you think about ‘Galaxy Field Guide For Kids.’ What did you like about the book? Were there any parts you didn’t like?

The best way to reach me is through the Contact page here on Another way is to use the comment form. Scroll down to the bottom and register to leave your thoughts. I’d love to hear from you.

You may also tell me what you think by writing a review on Amazon. Just visit one of the Galaxy pages on Amazon and add your own review. When you do write a review, please leave a note on my Contact page so I can thank you personally.

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Ray N. Franklin

Owner, SF Writer at Big Leaf, LLC
Ray N. Franklin lives in Fort Collins, Colorado. He has been a software engineer, granola entrepreneur, and internet marketer. Now he edits palindrome anthologies at and writes science fiction. is the place to find his stories and SF news. When not writing software he might be gardening or cooking up a mystery soup.

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